Therefore, be careful that you do not read more into the findings than can be supported by the evidence you've gathered. The discussion should cover all of the objectives specified in the report in depth. Consider Alternative Explanations of the Findings. A company may create its product strategy based on the report findings. Make Suggestions for Further Research. A lab report can also be used for criminal investigation by the police personnel. You should: Discuss your conclusions in order of most to least important. Relate the Findings to Similar Studies, No study is so novel or possesses such a restricted focus that it has absolutely no relation to other previously published research. The discussion section should definitely have a statement of your expected findings (Pechenik, 86). If appropriate, the discussion section is also where you state how the findings from your study revealed new gaps in the literature that had not been previously exposed or adequately described. Don’t just repeat all the data you have already reported – aim for a clear statement of the overall result that directly answers your main research question. The next step is to find the information you need for your report. He has worked for many fortune 500 companies, including Unilever, AT&T, McKesson, and UPS. You don’t have to write the report alone. University of Florida; Yellin, Linda L. A Sociology Writer's Guide. The report should link back to the existing hypothesis as documented in the literature review section of the report. The discussion should cover all of the objectives specified in the report in depth. Explain how your findings/results relate to what is already known in the field as well as to what you … Give a brief explanation about why you believe the findings and conclusions of your study are important and how they support broader knowledge or understanding of the research problem. IV. If you feel compelled to speculate, be certain that you clearly identify your comments as speculation or as a suggestion for where further research is needed. Writing a "good" discussion section This is is usually the hardest section to write. For a qualitative paper, although there is no need for statistical analysis of data, there is still a need to interpret the results for your audience in the Discussion section. Info on abstracts from APA manual: An abstract is a brief, comprehensive summary of the contents of an article, allowing readers to survey the contents quickly. This should be no more than one paragraph. In all these cases, it is imperative that a lab report be factual and provide adequate summarization of findings, backed by concrete evidence. Think of your discussion as an inverted pyramid. This is the section where you need to present the importance of your study and how it may be able to contribute to and/or fill existing gaps in the field. The report should include interpretation of the results, including any new findings from the research. Begin by briefly re-stating the research problem you were investigating and answer all of the research questions underpinning the problem that you posed in the introduction. Fourteen Steps to Writing to Writing an Effective Discussion Section. Copyright 2020 Leaf Group Ltd. / Leaf Group Education, How to Write a Scientific Conclusion for a Dissertation, The Fundamental Principles of Report Writing, Purdue University: Writing the Experimental Report -- Methods, Results, and Discussion, Penn State University: Writing Guidelines for Engineering and Science Students -- Laboratory Reports, Penn State University: Sample Laboratory Report #2. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon, 2009. In an ideal world, you could simply reject your null or alternative hypotheses according to the significance levels found by the statistics.That is the main point of your discussion section, but the process is usually a lot more complex than that. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results. Organize the discussion from the general to the specific, linking your findings to the literature, then to theory, then to practice [if appropriate]. to formulate a deeper, more profound understanding of the research problem you are studying. Organize the discussion from the general to the specific, linking your findings to the literature, then to theory, then to practice [if appropriate]. Explain the Meaning of the Findings and Why They are Important. Don’t just repeat all the data you have already reported – aim for a clear statement of the overall result that directly answers your main research question. Analyzing vs. Summarizing. If a study that you cited disagrees with your findings, don't ignore it--clearly explain why the study's findings differ from yours. Find the information. The discussion will always connect to the introduction by way of the research questions or hypotheses you posed and the literature you reviewed, but it does not simply repeat or rearrange the introduction; the discussion should always explain how your study has moved the reader's understanding of the research problem forward from where you left them at the end of the introduction. Note any unanswered questions or issues your study did not address, and.... Analyzing vs. Summarizing. These are the general rules you should adopt when composing your discussion of the results: The content of the discussion section of your paper most often includes: Keep the following sequential points in mind as you organize and write the discussion section of your paper: The objectives of your discussion section should include the following: It is important to remember that the purpose of research is to discover and not to prove. Department of English Writing Guide. Each conclusion should be supported with appropriate evidence. A few historical references may be helpful for perspective but most of the references should be relatively recent and included to aid in the interpretation of your results and/or linked to similar studies. For students, discussion often bridges the gap between the speaking and listening learning areas and reading and writing ones. You are trying to bring out the true meaning of your data without being too long. The order of interpreting each major finding should be in the same order as they were described in your results section. Discussing Your Findings. Use the same key terms, mode of narration, and verb tense [present] that you used when when describing the research problem in the introduction. There should be a comparison of your results and your expected findings. However, take care not to overspeculate. After reading the discussion section, you want the reader to think about the results [“why hadn’t I thought of that?”]. Get input on the case from all members of the team, highlighting their involvement. A key purpose of the discussion section is to move from specifics to general information. VI. Describe the patterns, principles, and relationships shown by each major findings and place them in proper perspective. University of Toronto; Summary: Using it Wisely. This should be no more than one paragraph. This can be followed by any recommendations for further research. One of the most common mistakes that you can make when discussing the results of your study is to present a superficial interpretation of the findings that more or less re-states the results section of your paper. This paragraph should begin with a description of the unexpected finding, followed by a brief interpretation as to why you believe it appeared and, if necessary, its possible significance in relation to the overall study. It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. Note any unanswered questions or issues your study did not address, and.... The discussion section is where you explore the underlying meaning of your research, its possible implications in other areas of study, and the possible improvements that can be made in order to further develop the concerns of your research. A key objective of the discussion section is to synthesize the results by providing a logical explanation. The activity of the salivary amylase enzyme in this experiment increased with temperature up to 37°C. Systematically explain the meaning of the findings and why you believe they are important. Start this chapter by reiterating your research problem and concisely summarizing your major findings. A lab report should not include any conflicting information that might cause confusion and trigger questions about the credibility of the report. Even if you are sure that they are significant, it doesn’t mean that you should repeat them many times. Also include the prognosis of the patient, if known, as the reader will want to know the outcome. Writing the Discussion Section (printable version here)The Discussion should be written after the Results section so that you have a good idea of what the experiment has demonstrated. In both cases, discussion and conclusion sections help to synthesize the findings by tying them to the objectives and discussing the implications. Venkatesh has more than 25 years of experience in different industries including telecommunications, healthcare, banking and financial management, government, transportation and logistics, education, and consumer goods. How to write the Discussion section of a scientific research paper. Usually around 4 to 8 key words or phrases are permitted. Remember that the data are the data: nothing more, nothing less. https://wordvice.com/research-writing-tips-editing-manuscript-discussion After you have written the results, start to write a discussion. Writing up. Start by rewriting your research questions and re-stating your hypothesis (if any) that you previously … Kretchmer, Paul. In most of the cases, the discussion section revolves around existing theories and hypotheses referenced in the literature review section of the lab report. The purpose of the discussion is to interpret and describe the significance of your findings in light of what was already known about the research problem being investigated, and to explain any new understanding or fresh insights about the problem after you've taken the findings into consideration. George Mason University; Discussion. For example, if you studied the impact of foreign aid on increasing levels of education among the poor in Bangladesh, it's generally not appropriate to speculate about how your findings might apply to populations in other countries without drawing from existing studies to support your claim. Abstract - Write the abstract LAST. The discussion section should end with a concise summary of the principal implications of the findings regardless of statistical significance. Fourteen Steps to Writing to Writing an Effective Discussion Section. One is the limitations section, where authors mention potential issues with study design, glitches in the data, and problems they encountered during the work that might affect the results. Begin by discussing the research question and talking about whether it was answered in the research paper based on the results. The next big step is to write the discussion. If appropriate, refer the reader to a figure or table to help enhance the interpretation of the data. Azar, Beth. In the longer version of a report, where there are multiple findings, the discussion is typically included within the results section itself, and a separate conclusion section is provided to summarize the findings. Ask the committee members for help or ask for a mentor that has written a report … How to Write a Chemistry Lab Report. How to write the final elements of a discussion section Most discussions will end with two elements. Respiratory Care 49 (October 2004); Kretchmer, Paul. When writing the discussion section, you should carefully consider all possible explanations for the study results, rather than just those that fit your hypothesis or prior assumptions and biases. NOTE: Besides the literature review section, the preponderance of references to sources in your research paper are usually found in the discussion section. When writing the discussion section, you should carefully consider all possible explanations for the study results, rather than just those that fit your prior assumptions or biases. The discussion can start with a summary of the aims and the results (write about x-fold or % changes rather than just repeating the results) You should try to explain the results, but only within the context of the study - integrating swags of theory into the discussion is not necessary and leads to rambling reports. Use the same key terms, mode of narration, and verb tense [present] that you used when when describing the research problem in the introduction. It is the last part of your paper, in which you summarize your findings in light of the current literature. Although your study may offer important insights about the research problem, other questions related to the problem likely remain unanswered. Also do not repeat your results, this is a discussion. Here you have to write about your ideas after the experiment was conducted and inform your readers about your thoughts that are based on the results of the experiment. Check the guidelines of the journal to which you plan to submit your study. If needed, use subheadings to help organize your presentation or to group your interpretations into themes. Do not repeat specific ideas too often. You should write a direct, declarative, and succinct proclamation of the study results. If you want to write a nice discussion paper, you should express different ideas and opinions on the given topic and provide a discussion based on … Write in this section some information about whether your results supported your thesis or there were variances. Briefly reiterate for your readers the research problem or problems you are investigating and the methods you used to investigate them, then move quickly to describe the major findings of the study. III. Write up the case emphasising the interesting points of the presentation, investigations leading to diagnosis, and management of the disease/pathology. It is far better for you to identify and acknowledge your study’s limitations than to have them pointed out by your professor! First of all, never select a topic that doesn’t touch you. V. Acknowledge the Study’s Limitations Do not use words to conceal your facts or reasoning. San Francisco Edit, 2003-2008. The discussion section should relate your study findings to those of other studies, particularly if questions raised by previous studies served as the motivation for your study, the findings of other studies support your findings [which strengthens the importance of your study results], and/or they point out how your study differs from other similar studies. Explain the Meaning of the Findings and Why They are Important. However, do not offer recommendations which could have been easily addressed within the study. Describe the generalizability of your results to other situations, if applicable to the method chosen, then describe in detail problems you encountered in the method(s) you used to gather information. Possibilities include the name of the condition or special treatments that you used. Begin this part of the section by repeating what you consider to be your most important finding first. An abstract is a super-short summary and is difficult to write. The discussion should indicate whether \the results met the objectives and include the reasons for it. Present your thoughts and opinions in an understandable format and all of your readers will get your point of view. Even if you like the topic, you might find it complicated to write about it. No study is so novel or possesses such a restricted focus that it has absolutely no relation to other previously published research. If more than one unexpected finding emerged during the study, describe each them in the order they appeared as you gathered the data. Writing the Discussion The discussion section is a framing section, like the Introduction, which returns to the significance argument set up in your introduction. Be clear in your writing. The success of your analytical report is a combination of accurate content discussion, proper formatting, strong and appropriate recommendations and overall document development. Writing in Psychology course syllabus. Describe the generalizability of your results to other situations, if applicable to the method chosen, then describe in detail problems you encountered in the method(s) you used to gather information. The report should link back to the existing hypothesis as documented in the literature review section of the report. American Psychological Association gradPSYCH Magazine (January 2006). Moreover, some unanswered questions may have become more focused because of your study. Bates College; Hess, Dean R. How to Write an Effective Discussion. This section is often considered the most important part of a research paper because it most effectively demonstrates your ability as a researcher to think critically about an issue, to develop creative solutions to problems based on the findings, and to formulate a deeper, more profound understanding of the research problem you are studying. Super-Short summary and is difficult to write the report alone the findings and Why believe. 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